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Bioinformatics and Microbiology

Microorganisms are most abundant and diverse in nature. A microbiologists is a scientist who studies living organisms and infectious particles, such as bacteria and viruses, that can only be seen with a microscope. Microbiologists try to answer scientific questions that no one else has answered before by doing experiments - they are explorers, making discoveries, developing new knowledge and applying it to real-world problems.

Using the bioinformatics algorithms and tools to integrate the microbiological data and clinical data that could be very helpful to better understand the mechanisms of diseases. It has had a major impact on all fields of biology, and has revolutionized some of the manners in which microbiological research is carried out. During the past decade, Bioinformatics methods used to discover host-pathogen interactions, relationships between microbiome dynamics and diseases, and correlations between bacterial sequence variation and clinical outcomes.

Researchers have only begun to understand the diversity profiles, metabolic functioning and potential economic value of these organisms. Analysis of microorganisms involves the culture and study of selected microbes in the laboratory. While this approach has yielded much information. There are two major drawbacks. Firstly, most microbes present in the environment are unculturable and secondly, they focus on one, often attenuated, species and a set of genes at a time. To overcome these problems, researchers have focused on the development of new technologies that yield large, reliable and robust datasets. The development of high-throughput sequencing technologies has dramatically advanced the analysis of microbial species diversity and their functioning within ecosystems. The large volumes of information-rich data require intelligent, and often repetitive, computational analysis, bioinformatics analysis tools.

The rapid advancement of sequencing techniques, coupled with the new methodologies of bioinformatics to handle large-scale data analysis, are providing exciting opportunities for us to understand microbial communities from a variety of environments.

In addition bioinformatics analysis has enhanced our understandings about the genome structure and the microorganism restructuring process.

Bioinformatics analysis will facilitate and quicken the analysis of systemic level behavior of cellular processes, and to understanding the cellular processes in order to treat and control microbial cells as factories. For the last decade, bioinformatics techniques have been developed to identify and analyze various components of cells such as gene and protein function, interactions, and metabolic and regulatory pathways. The next decade will belong to understanding cellular mechanism and cellular manipulation using the integration of bioinformatics, wet lab, and cell simulation techniques.

In Future, the ultimate goal of bioinformatics is the integration of the biological databases and genomic resources that can result in a computer representation of living cells and organisms whereby any aspect of biology can be examined computationally.

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