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Bioinformatics and Proteomics

Updated: Jul 17, 2020

Proteomics is a newly emerging field of life science research that uses High Throughput technologies to display, identify and characterize all the proteins in a given cell, tissue or organism. Proteomics research involves the separation, identification, qualitative, quantitative, and functional characterization of the entire protein profile of a given cell, tissue, and organism. Studying proteome also includes the profiling of isoforms, mutants, post-translational modifications, splice variants and protein-protein interactions. In this process, bioinformatics methods play a vital role for the analysis of proteomics.

Proteomics is an interdisciplinary domain which has benefited a lot from the genetic information of the Human Genome Project; it's also arising scientific research and exploration of proteomes from the complete level of intracellular protein composition, structure and function. It's a valuable component of functional genomics.

In Bioinformatics, there are various methods to predict the structure of the proteins which infer its structure from the simple amino acid sequence. In a broad sense, the proteins structure determination includes the prediction of folding, its secondary and tertiary structure from its primary structure.

Bioinformatics tools and algorithms are used to predict the protein structure.

Bioinformatics develope better understanding of how proteins fold and interact with one another and other Biological molecules which in turn gives scientists and doctors better insights into diseases and ways to combat them. Bioinformatics tools used in Diabetes research, Tumor metastasis, Nutrition research, Fetal and maternal medicine, Renal disease diagnosis, Neurology, Urological cancer research and Antibody profiling for study and treatment disease.

Several genome sequencing projects have recently been completed and the majority of human coding regions have been sequenced. Proteomics methods are essential for studying protein expression, activity, regulation and modifications. Bioinformatics is an integral part of proteomics research. The recent developments and applications in proteomics including mass spectrometry data analysis and interpretation, analysis and storage of the gel images to databases, gel comparison, and advanced methods to study protein co-expression, protein–protein interactions, as well as metabolic and cellular pathways. The significance of bioinformatics in proteomics will gradually increase because of the advent of high-throughput methods relying on powerful data with the help of Bioinformatics.

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