Genetic analysis is the art of analyzing the phenomena of heredity by hybridization that was introduced in 1865 by Gregor Mendel. It deals with the phenomenon of heredity by parsing it into unit-entities, the inheritance of which could be followed by measurable numerical relationships obtained through cross-breeding experiments. With the advance of genetic engineering, sophisticated plasmids small accessory bacterial DNA molecules, into which foreign DNA sequences can be inserted were constructed.
Genetic analysis may be done to make a differential diagnosis in certain somatic diseases such as cancer. Genetic analyses of cancer include detection of mutations, fusion genes, and DNA copy number changes.
DNA sequencing is essential to the applications of genetic analysis. This process is used to determine the order of nucleotide bases. By generating a DNA sequence for a particular organism, we determine the patterns that make up genetic traits and in some cases behaviors.
It is a branch of genetics that is concerned with the study of the structure and function of the cell, especially the chromosomes. Polymerase chain reaction studies the amplification of DNA. Because of the close analysis of chromosomes in cytogenetics, abnormalities are more readily seen and diagnosed.
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. The term is also used for the complete set of chromosomes in a species, or an individual organism.
A DNA microarray is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biochemical technology in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of applications.
Study Genetic linkage for analysis of the linkage of traits due to the spatial arrangement of genes on the chromosome, an analysis which dates back to classical genetics, study Genetic code for analysis of codons as defined through research on nucleic acids, which is often classed with reverse genetics, for analysis of maternal inheritance related to mitochondrial DNA, study Mitochondrial DNA § Mitochondrial inheritance and for medical, genealogical, legal and security applications of genetic research that are mainly directed at humans, study Genetic testing.
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